Authors technical guidelines
Article template download : here
Monographs language: english
Article size: 20 000 – 30 000 characters
Text should be prepared using Times New Roman font, with size 12p.
The structure of the submitted paper should be of the following ordering:
Name and Lastname (Times New Roman, 12 pkt. bold, centered)
affiliation (Times New Roman, 12 pkt.)
ORCID: 0000-0000-0000-0000, e-mail: email@example.com (Times New Roman, 10 pkt.)
Abstract (Times New Roman, 10 pkt.): (200-400 words)
As underlined by P. Kotler and H. Barich, image is the sum of beliefs, attitudes and impressions that a person or a group of people has in relation to a given object [Cohen 1963, pp. 48-63, Kotler, Barich 1991, Cornelissen 2000, Dąbrowski, 2010, pp. 65-67]. On the other hand, W.J. Crissy highlights its diversity, due to the variety of human values, experiences, knowledge and needs. It is essential that an entity may shape it by means of various instruments (including marketing ones). According to S.H. Britt, once an image is shaped, it more strongly affects people’s behaviour than the sum of its elements [Crissy 1971; Britt 1985]. Times New Roman 12 pkt., normalny/normal; 1pkt. odstępu/interline)
Table 1. Title of the table (Times New Roman, 11 pkt., centered)
Source: own study, based on ....
Fig. 1. Title of the figure
Source: own study, based on (http://www...............).
whereas in the case of inhibitors (X1, X3, X4, X5, X6, X15, X18) it is based on the formula:
Foot notes Bibliographic footnotes in the Harvard rely on referring to the data source directly in the text, (rather than at the bottom as in traditional systems) without specifying a complete reference. The square brackets put the author's name, in which is claimed and the date of issue of the book or article.)
As underlined by P. Kotler and H. Barich, image is the sum of beliefs, attitudes and impressions that a person or a group of people has in relation to a given object [Cohen 1963, pp. 48-63, Kotler, Barich 1991, Cornelissen 2000, Dąbrowski, 2010, pp. 65-67]. On the other hand, W.J. Crissy highlights its diversity, due to the variety of human values, experiences, knowledge and needs. It is essential that an entity may shape it by means of various instruments (including marketing ones). According to S.H. Britt, once an image is shaped, it more strongly affects people’s behaviour than the sum of its elements [Crissy 1971; Britt 1985].
BASU, S., TAYLOR, A., (1999). Business Cycles in International Historical Perspective, Journal of Economic Perspectives, No 13.
Title of the article
ATTENTION! If the article is written in Polish, please include the article title, abstract, key words and JEL translated into English; if the article is written in English, include the title of the article, abstract, key words and JEL translated into Polish)
Abstract: Times New Roman, 10 pkt.
Keywords: (minimum three)
more information: http://pes.pwsz.pila.pl/index.php/proceedings/Authors_guidelines
Creating footnotes and bibliographical reference
Each of the scientific publication, contains references to the literature, in that case the author must indicate works and their authors in the form of footnotes and bibliographical references. Recalling thoughts, words of other authors without indicating the source from which they are derived, is considered disrespect of intellectual property. As a result - the job is regarded as plagiarism and can not be subject to assessment.The paper should be an absolute principle that every thought, which is taken from another author must be accompanied by a footnote, so that the published footnotes clearly distinguish their own opinions presented in the work of the cited. The reason of using the footnotes is to easy identify the words and ideas of the authors cited.
The rules of editing the footnotes are very specific. There are many of parallely existing legitimate systems. At the Institute of Economics assumed that the current standard is called the harvard system. It consists of two elements - reference in text and literature attached at the end of publication with accurate bibliographic description.
In practice editing bibliographic referece using the harvard system is not always uniform.Notwithstanding this, the most important is so the author use the footnotes without "mixing" different systems. Below are presented the rules that apply to sent in materials.
- The rules of editing footnotes in text
1.1. Bibliographic footnotes in the Harvard rely on referring to the data source directly in the text, (rather than at the bottom as in traditional systems) without specifying a complete reference. The square brackets put the author's name, in which is claimed and the date of issue of the book or article. In practice, it looks like this:
- right after the quote or set up on the idea, opinion, or to the author, write:
[name year the book was published, page number on which there is a thought]
[Kowalski 2012, s. 7]
- if we are dealing with two authors write
[Kowalski i Nowak 2010, s. 10]
- If the authors of the three note is written as follows:
[Kowalski, Nowak i Wiśniewski 2010, s.7-10]
- in the case of several authors (more than three) should be written:
[Kowalski i inni, 2009, s. 23]
- if the question to which we refer, is beign treated by different authors note should be written as follows:
[Kowalski 1999]; [Nowak 2012]; [Wiśniewski 2013]
- when reference is made to the work of an author who has published in a given year, more than one publication, in the footnotes to the year add another small letters:
[Kowalski 1999a, s.6][Kowalski 1999b, s. 12][Kowalski 1999c, s.9]
- when the authors thought is present in more than one of his work, write:
[Kowalski 2001, 2002]
- it can happen, especially in the case of popular names, that in the work will appear different authors with the same name - in this case, write the initials of their name to distinguish authors :
[Kowalski B. 2010][Kowalski J. 2013]
1.2. Various studies, reports, and data collected by the institutions, are repeatedly used in theses without indicating the author of the study.
Reference like this should be written as follows:
1.3.When you refer to acts such as laws, regulations, footnote in the text should have the following entry:
[Ustawa z 10 marca 2010]
[Rozporządzenie MNiSW z 10 listopada 2012]
1.4. When reference is made to the standards they must also have the appropriate bibliographical description:
1.5. It often happens that the author refers to another author and his book, which he had not read himself, but relied on the reference of the author of the publication read. Then, it should be written in the following form:
[za: Wiśniewski 1998, s. 88]
It should be noted that other footnotes, such as a polemic, additional explanations, which we consider to be important, but deliberately did not want to put them in the main text, so as not to introduce additional topics, writes traditionally at the bottom of the page. These notes provide information for the reader to read further clarify the content and thoughts of the author.
- Rules of editing bibliography
At the end of the paper we present a bibliography, in which we put only those publications, the author of which is related to. Serializes them alphabetically by author or title of publication, if the position is not specified author, editor or causal bodies. However:
- When we relate to different works by the same author we are committed to serialize them by year - from the oldest to the newest.
- Titles of works always write in italics.
- Cataloguing we write according to the scheme:
name of the author (book, article, report),
initials of his name
year of issue (issue number, if it is not the first edition)
title of the work (and subtitle)
where the book was published
np. Golka M., 2004. W cywilizacji konsumpcyjnej, Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, Poznań.
Gorlach K., 2004. Socjologia obszarów wiejskich. Wydawnictwo Naukowe SCHOLAR, Warszawa.
- If the work, which we refer to is a collective work of many authors bibliographic description is as follows:
Galas B., Lewowicki, 1991. Osobowość a aspiracje, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Warszawa.
Hall R.E., Taylor J.B., 1995.Makroekonomia. Teoria, funkcjonowanie i polityka. PWN, Warszawa.
Drozdowski R., Zakrzewska K., Puchalska M., Morchat D., 2010, Wspieranie postaw proinnowacyjnych przez wzmacnianie kreatywności jednostki, Polska Agencja Rozwoju Przedsiębiorczości, Warszawa.
- In the case of collective works we use the following scheme:
name of the author (chapter, article, that we directly refer to)
initials of his name
title of the chapter (italics)
collective works editors name (names)
initials of name
title of the book (italics)
np. Górniak K., 2005. Wizerunek wsi i rolnictwa w kontekście przystąpienia Polski do Unii Europejskiej, w: Proces demarginalizacji polskiej wsi, Fedyszak-RadziejowskaB., (red.), Instytut Spraw Publicznych, Warszawa.
Fedyszak-Radziejowska B. 2012.Społeczności wiejskie pięć lat po akcesjido UE – sukces spóźnionej transformacji, w: Polska wieś 2012.Raport o stanie wsi, WilkinJ., Nurzyńska I.,(red.), Wydawnictwo Naukowe SCHOLAR, Warszawa.
- If books, articles, or other information which we refer to come from online resources indicate the address of the www site and give the exact date of access to the information. For example:
Grosse T., Hardt Ł. 2010, Sektorowa czy zintegrowana, czyli o optymalnej strategii rozwoju polskiej wsi, https://www.mrr.gov.pl/aktualnosci/fundusze_europejskie_2007_2013 (dostęp: 7.01. 2013).
Polityka UE w zakresie rozwoju obszarów wiejskich na lata 2007–2013,http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/publi/fact/rurdev2007/2007_pl.pdf (dostęp: 8. 12. 2012).
Please note that websites are an equal source of information - the same as the classical sources - books, magazines, reports - but this applies only to authorized and institutional sources. We do not use the work of Bachelor or amateur sites, such as chomikuj.pl or ściąga.pl.
- Cataloguing acts as follows::
Ustawa z dnia 27 lipca 2005 r. Prawo o szkolnictwie wyższym, Dz. U. 2005 Nr 164 poz. 1365.
Ustawa z dnia 27 sierpnia 2009 r. o finansach publicznych, Dz. U. z 2009 r. Nr 157, poz. 1240.
- Using bibliographic publications issued by institutions or organizations, where there is no author or editor in the following way:
GUS 2009.Rocznik demograficzny 2008, Zakład Wydawnictw Statystycznych, Warszawa.
GUS 2012.Narodowy Spis Powszechny Ludności i Mieszkań 2011. Raport z wyników,http://www.stat.gov.pl/cps/rde/xbcr/gus/lud_raport_z_wynikow_NSP2011.pdf (dostęp: 5.01. 2013).
- In the case of bibliographic description of standards we give full name:
for example, a footnote in the text is as follows: [PN-EN ISO 661:2006]
In the case of bibliographic description standards we give her full name:
PN-EN ISO 661:2006, Oleje i tłuszcze roślinne oraz zwierzęce -Przygotowanie próbki do badań.
It should be noted that correctly applied the relevant drafting notes and bibliographic descriptions contained in the bibliographic reference, are of great importance in the evaluation of the thesis, both in terms of accuracy and uniformity of system and consistency in its use for the unambiguous identification of the sources cited.
It is also important from the point of view of ethics - honesty researcher's scientific work.
Articles in Progress in Economic Sciences in printed and online versions are published on the basis of Open Access principles under CC - Creative Commons Attribution. Authors are free to use texts published in the journal.